Fundamental state: meaning, examples and formula (2023)

In this article, you will learn what the ground state of atoms is and, more importantly, how it differs from the excited state of atoms. Here you will discover how the ground state applies to different atomic contexts of electron configuration. You will learn how to draw electron diagrams to represent the ground state of atoms and how they exhibit periodicity.

  • In this article, you will be guided through the definition of Fundamental Stateof the atom
  • You will see how it can be applied to many different atomic contexts.
  • You will also learn the difference betweenFundamental Stateit's him excited state of atoms not context of Electronic configuration.

Chemistry of ground state definition

So what does "Fundamental State"of an atom?

The simplest definition ofFundamental Stateof an atom refers to:

Fundamental State(of an atom): thelowest possible energy levelof the atom in question.

To define this more broadly, we can say that theFundamental Stateis the state that atoms are in if they are not charged orexcitedby external sources. These excitation sources can be mild (such asphotons) or any other wavelength in theelectromagnetic spectrum.

When discrete amounts of energy, such ashow many, exciting the atom, triggers certain subatomic rearrangements and a change in theelectronic configuration. But in this case, the ground state refers to the state in which this process does not occur.nooccurs and focuses on the atom in its usual "unloaded" state.

So what does he doFundamental Statemeans in terms ofelectronsinside an atom? In fact, when talking about the ground state of an atom, it is theelectronic configurationit's himenergy states of electronspresent no atom.

here theenergy state of electronsrefers to energylevelsof the electrons that can beexcited(if the excitation comes from an external source) orwithout enthusiasm, which we callFundamental State.

This means that inFundamental State, the atom is not excited and, consequently, none of theelectronsare happy. The electrons are in theirlowerpossible power state. What happens in the ground state is that all the electrons line up so that they have the lowest possible energy for their individual position within the electron.atom, and also the system in general.

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There are a number of factors that determine the placement of theelectroninside an atom, which we'll discuss in the next section. However, it is crucial to remember that electrons can occupy different states within an atom. HeFundamental Statewill always refer to the state in which electrons are in their lowest possible energy configuration within the atom.

Ground state electronic configuration

So how can weto viewheground state electronic configurations?

we can use electronic configuration diagramsas arrow and box graphs. Here, we'll explore what they are and how they can be used to represent atoms in the ground state. As the definition of the ground state of atoms refers to their electronic energy levels, representing them will help us understand the inner workings of the atom.

Below you will find an empty electron diagram.orbitals.

Fundamental state: meaning, examples and formula (1)Fig. 1 - Empty electron orbitals

But how do electrons fill theseorbitals?

There are three sets of rules to consider when considering these types of problems: theconstruction principle, Pauli exclusion principle,ydog rule. Here you will find summaries of what they mean.

  1. principle of construction: Electrons will always tend to fill the lowest possible energy state (orbital) before moving on to subsequent higher energy orbitals.
  2. Pauli exclusion principle: there can be a maximum of two electrons per orbital, each with an oppositestate of rotation.
  3. dog rule: the electrons fill the subshells individually, which means that if there are other 'boxes' in the same energy orbital, the electrons will individually fill all the boxes before starting to pair.

So how does this relate to the notion ofFundamental State? You can see how electrons will preferentially line up in an atom in the ground state. Here, the way atoms naturally fill into an atom will be the ground state.

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This can be useful for determining theground state electronic configurationsof any atom, because if you apply the three rules mentioned above, you will determine the ground state of the particular element. This is because when atoms are in an excited state (which we'll get to shortly), theelectronic repairchanges and deviates from the canonical rules ofConstruction, Pauli and Hund. On the other hand, we can see how applying the rules will give us the ground state configurations of theelectronsin a given atom, as this will suggest how the electrons would be arranged if there were no external source ofenergyapplied or any possible deviation. This would result in setting the lowest possible power levels, so theFundamental Statecontext.

ground state of atoms

You can apply the above definitionFundamental Stateas well as theories aboutelectronic configurationto atomic models now. As stated above, you can construct electronic diagrams to match the ground state. At the end of this article, you will find examples of the ground state.

A crucial distinction to be made regarding theFundamental State, especially when it comes to configuration diagrams, is the distinction between an electronic systemconchaand an electronicorbital. When talking about these theoretical notions offlooryexcitedstatus, will be discussedelectronsgaining energy (usually from an external power source such asluzin anotherwave-lengthsinceelectromagneticspectrum). The energy gain will be correlated with theelectronmoving towards higher energy states, and in those contexts the two specified areas will be a higher energylevel(shell) or higher energyorbital.

So what's the difference? In these contexts, you might think that the concepts of energy shell and orbital are interchangeable. This is just to mean the same definition: that aThe electron goes to a higher energy state., thus creating aexcited state.

Look at the diagram to clarify how an electron rises in energy. This distinction is what causes the difference between the ground state and the excited state of atoms.

Fundamental state: meaning, examples and formula (2)Figure 2 -An atom in the ground state being excited by a photon. This causes the electron to move to a higher energy shell.

usually theexcited stateof atoms is represented by an asterisk next to it. Below you will find an example:

A(Fundamental State)

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A*(excited state)

A+ energy =A*

A* = A+ energy

Therefore, you can assume that molecules or atoms are only in their excited state if there is an asterisk next to them. This will help you to identify theground statesof atoms inequations.

Ground state electronic configuration vs. excited state

Have a look at bothelectronic configurationsbelow. In this example, the model element is carbon.

Fundamental state: meaning, examples and formula (3)Fig. 3 - Diagram of electronic configuration of the ground state and excited state of carbon

Do you notice any difference between them? One of them can be said to clearly follow the three rules we set out above. As a reminder, these are theconstruction principle, Pauli exclusion principle,ydog rule.

The diagram above representing the ground state represents theelectronsorganizing according to these three fundamental principles. So how does it differ in the excited state? In particular, one can see how an electron from theorbital 2smoves to theorbital 2p. As you can see, there is a 'hole' in the 2s orbital, which means that electrons do not occupy the lowest energy states. We would call this an excited state because one of the electrons has enough energy to move up one energy level, in this case to the 2p orbital.

Just like you wonenergygo up towards oneexcited state, the electron can re-emit the energy and return to the energy level it occupied before:the ground state.

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Fundamental state: meaning, examples and formula (4)Fig. 4 - Change from an excited state to the ground state of an atom

As a reminder, below you will see how the electronic arrangement is represented in box and arrow diagrams as energy levels increase. You can use this to find out the arrangement of subatomic particles and, more importantly, whether the element in question is in its ground state.

Note that the diagram below only shows the electronic arrangement up to the 4p orbital, however there are items that go much further than that, but you don't need to worry about that.

Fundamental state: meaning, examples and formula (5)Fig. 5 - Aufbau principle for electron configuration

Examples of ground state

Here you will find many examples ofground state electron configuration.Take a look at the figure below, which shows the electronic configuration of atoms from Boron to Oxygen.

Fundamental state: meaning, examples and formula (6)Figure 6 -Electronic configuration representing the ground state of elements B, C, N, O

What can you see in the diagram above? You can tell how the elements given in the example increase in atomic number by 1, so their number of electrons will increase by 1.

Thinking about the gradual increase in electrons, look at what happens to the electronic configuration of elements and, more importantly, how it changes from atom to atom. That way, you'll observe trends and see how Hund's rule plays a role in electron configuration. Ultimately, all this just goes to show that the ground state of atoms is a pattern-like process and does not shift from atom to atom. Using these examples, you can predict any electron configuration of the atoms in question and determine whether they are in the ground state or excited state.

Ground state: key points

  • The ground state of an atom refers to awithout enthusiasmstate.
  • Excitation occurs when an electron moves up through energy states.
  • You can determine the state of an atom with its electron configuration.
  • The electronic state of atoms can be determined by:
    • principle of construction
    • Pauli exclusion principle
    • dog rule
  • The electron configuration exhibits periodicity as seen in examples of atomic ground states.
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What is the fundamental counting formula? ›

The fundamental counting principle states that if there are p ways to do one thing, and q ways to do another thing, then there are p×q ways to do both things.

What is an example of fundamental principle of counting in real life? ›

Fundamental Principle of Counting

Example: A restaurant has 5 appetizers, 8 beverages, 9 entrees, and 6 desserts on the menu. If you have a beverage and a dessert, there are 8*6=48 different meals consisting of a beverage and dessert.

What is the fundamental principle of counting multiplication rule examples? ›

This principle states that the total number of outcomes of two or more independent events is the product of the number of outcomes of each individual event. For example, a child choosing among six flavors of icecreams with 3 varieties of cones will have 6 x 3 = 18 different choices of icecreams.

What is the fundamental counting principle 5th grade? ›

The teacher then guides the class to understand and apply the fundamental counting principle, which states that the total number of outcomes is equal to the number of possibilities in a set of choices multiplied by the number of possibilities in each other set of choices.

What are fundamental principles examples? ›

Equality, Rule of Law, Limited Government, and Representative Government are examples of fundamental principles and values in American political and civic life.

What does fundamental mean in math? ›

Fundamental mathematics is a foundation for later learning. It is primary because it contains advanced mathematical topics in rudimentary form, and it is elementary because it is at the beginning of students' learning.

What are some examples of math in everyday life? ›

Here are some daily tasks for which math is important:
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  • Balancing the checkbook.
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How do I use the fundamental counting principle to find the total number of outcomes? ›

The Fundamental Counting Principle states that if you wish to find the number of outcomes for a given situation, simply multiply the number of outcomes for each individual event.

What is the multiplication rule example? ›

Examples of the General Multiplication Rule

Initially, the deck has 13 hearts out of its 52 cards (13/52 = 0.25). If you draw a heart (event H1), that changes the probability of drawing another heart. The dependent probability of drawing that second heart (event H2) is now 12/51 = 0.235.

What is an example of a rule in math? ›

An algebraic rule is a mathematical expression that relates two variables and is written in the form of an equation. There are many constant algebraic rules, such as area = length x width.

What is fundamental principles? ›

Definitions of fundamental principle. principles from which other truths can be derived. synonyms: basic principle, basics, bedrock, fundamentals. types: ABC, ABC's, ABCs, alphabet, first principle, first rudiment, rudiment. the elementary stages of any subject (usually plural)

What is the formula of probability? ›

Probability determines the likelihood of an event occurring: P(A) = f / N. Odds and probability are related but odds depend on the probability. You first need probability before determining the odds of an event occurring.

What are the 4 counting principles? ›

This video uses manipulatives to review the five counting principles including stable order, correspondence, cardinality, abstraction, and order irrelevance.

What are 7 fundamental principles? ›

Humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity and universality: these seven Fundamental Principles sum up the Movement's ethics and are at the core of its approach to helping people in need during armed conflict, natural disasters and other emergencies.

What are the 5 fundamental principles? ›

The revised Code establishes a conceptual framework for all professional accountants to ensure compliance with the five fundamental principles of ethics:
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  • Objectivity.
  • Professional Competence and Due Care.
  • Confidentiality.
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They are popular sovereignty, limited government, separation of powers, federalism, checks and balances, republicanism, and individual rights.

What is the simple meaning of fundamental? ›

fun·​da·​men·​tal ˌfən-də-ˈment-ᵊl. : being or forming a foundation : basic, essential. a discovery fundamental to modern science. our fundamental rights. : of or relating to essential structure or function : radical.

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In mathematics, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, also called the unique factorization theorem and prime factorization theorem, states that every integer greater than 1 can be represented uniquely as a product of prime numbers, up to the order of the factors.

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Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic states that every integer greater than 1 is either a prime number or can be expressed in the form of primes. In other words, all the natural numbers can be expressed in the form of the product of its prime factors.

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Why is the fundamental counting principle important? The fundamental counting principle can be used for problems having large sample spaces, problems having more than two choices and can also be applied in probability.

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The Fundamental Counting Principle states that if one event has m possible outcomes and a 2nd event has n possible outcomes, then there are m ⋅ n total possible outcomes for the two events together.

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The difference between the two is whether or not order is important. If you have a problem where you can repeat objects, then you must use the Fundamental Counting Principle, you can't use Permutations or Combinations.

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Without the precise understanding provided by the equations, the world would not have silicon chips, compact disk players, MRI medical examinations, or many of the other things we now take for granted. But none of those applications required that those equations be solved in the strict mathematical sense.

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While there are five basic counting principles: addition, multiplication, subtraction, cardinality (principle of inclusion-exclusion), and division.

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How do you calculate fundamental operations? ›

Generally, the order in which we perform operations sequentially from left to right is: division, multiplication, addition, subtraction. This order is expressed in short as 'DMAS' where 'D' stands for division, 'M' stands for multiplication, 'A' stands for addition and, 'S' for subtraction.

What is fundamental unit example? ›

In the International System of Units, the fundamental units are: Kilograms - Mass. Meters - Distance. Counting - Seconds.

What are 3 fundamental units? ›

The three fundamental units are:
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Atoms are the building blocks of matter because they cannot be "broken down" further by chemical means (although we can split them). Inside an atom consists of three different particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons.

What is the principle of fundamental? ›

Humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity and universality: these seven Fundamental Principles sum up the Movement's ethics and are at the core of its approach to helping people in need during armed conflict, natural disasters and other emergencies.

What are the fundamental principles of mathematics? ›

Fundamental principles(?) in mathematics
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Jan 2, 2012

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The formula of permutation is: nPr=n! (n−r)!

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Addition (Finding the Sum; '+') Subtraction (Finding the difference; '-') Multiplication (Finding the product; '×' ) Division (Finding the quotient; '÷')

Which formula is the fundamental theorem of algebra formula? ›

The roots can have a multiplicity greater than zero. For example, x2 − 2x + 1 = 0 can be expressed as (x − 1)(x − 1) = 0; that is, the root x = 1 occurs with a multiplicity of 2. The theorem can also be stated as every polynomial equation of degree n where n ≥ 1 with complex number coefficients has at least one root.

What are the four fundamentals of calculation and basic measure? ›

--addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division--have application even in the most advanced mathematical theories.


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