In this article, you will learn what the ground state of atoms is and, more importantly, how it differs from the excited state of atoms. Here you will discover how the ground state applies to different atomic contexts of electron configuration. You will learn how to draw electron diagrams to represent the ground state of atoms and how they exhibit periodicity.

- In this article, you will be guided through the definition of
**Fundamental State**of the atom - You will see how it can be applied to many different atomic contexts.
- You will also learn the difference between
**Fundamental State**it's him**excited state**of atoms not context of**Electronic configuration.**

## Chemistry of ground state definition

So what does "**Fundamental State**"of an atom?

The simplest definition of**Fundamental State**of an atom refers to:

**Fundamental State**(of an atom): the*lowest possible energy level*of the atom in question.

To define this more broadly, we can say that the**Fundamental State**is the state that atoms are in if they are not charged or**excited**by external sources. These excitation sources can be mild (such as**photons**) or any other wavelength in the**electromagnetic spectrum**.

When discrete amounts of energy, such as**how many**, exciting the atom, triggers certain subatomic rearrangements and a change in the**electronic configuration**. But in this case, the ground state refers to the state in which this process does not occur.*no*occurs and focuses on the atom in its usual "unloaded" state.

So what does he do**Fundamental State**means in terms of**electrons**inside an atom? In fact, when talking about the ground state of an atom, it is the**electronic configuration**it's him*energy states of electrons*present no atom.

here the*energy state of electrons*refers to energy**levels**of the electrons that can be**excited**(if the excitation comes from an external source) or**without enthusiasm**, which we call**Fundamental State**.

This means that in**Fundamental State**, the atom is not excited and, consequently, none of the**electrons**are happy. The electrons are in their*lower*possible power state. What happens in the ground state is that all the electrons line up so that they have the lowest possible energy for their individual position within the electron.**atom**, and also the system in general.

There are a number of factors that determine the placement of the**electron**inside an atom, which we'll discuss in the next section. However, it is crucial to remember that electrons can occupy different states within an atom. He**Fundamental State**will always refer to the state in which electrons are in their lowest possible energy configuration within the atom.

## Ground state electronic configuration

So how can we*to view*he**ground state electronic configurations**?

we can use* *** electronic configuration diagrams**as arrow and box graphs. Here, we'll explore what they are and how they can be used to represent atoms in the ground state. As the definition of the ground state of atoms refers to their electronic energy levels, representing them will help us understand the inner workings of the atom.

Below you will find an empty electron diagram.**orbitals**.

Fig. 1 - Empty electron orbitals

*But how do electrons fill these orbitals?*

There are three sets of rules to consider when considering these types of problems: the**construction principle, Pauli exclusion principle,**y**dog rule**. Here you will find summaries of what they mean.

**principle of construction**: Electrons will always tend to fill the lowest possible energy state (orbital) before moving on to subsequent higher energy orbitals.**Pauli exclusion principle**: there can be a maximum of two electrons per orbital, each with an opposite*state of rotation*.**dog rule**: the electrons fill the subshells individually, which means that if there are other 'boxes' in the same energy orbital, the electrons will individually fill all the boxes before starting to pair.

So how does this relate to the notion of**Fundamental State**? You can see how electrons will preferentially line up in an atom in the ground state. Here, the way atoms naturally fill into an atom will be the ground state.

This can be useful for determining the**ground state electronic configurations**of any atom, because if you apply the three rules mentioned above, you will determine the ground state of the particular element. This is because when atoms are in an excited state (which we'll get to shortly), the**electronic repair**changes and deviates from the canonical rules of**Construction, Pauli and Hund**. On the other hand, we can see how applying the rules will give us the ground state configurations of the**electrons**in a given atom, as this will suggest how the electrons would be arranged if there were no external source of**energy**applied or any possible deviation. This would result in setting the lowest possible power levels, so the**Fundamental State**context.

## ground state of atoms

You can apply the above definition**Fundamental State**as well as theories about**electronic configuration**to atomic models now. As stated above, you can construct electronic diagrams to match the ground state. At the end of this article, you will find examples of the ground state.

A crucial distinction to be made regarding the**Fundamental State**, especially when it comes to configuration diagrams, is the distinction between an electronic system**concha**and an electronic**orbital**. When talking about these theoretical notions of**floor**y**excited**status, will be discussed**electrons**gaining energy (usually from an external power source such as**luz**in another**wave-length**since**electromagnetic**spectrum). The energy gain will be correlated with the**electron**moving towards higher energy states, and in those contexts the two specified areas will be a higher energy**level**(shell) or higher energy**orbital**.

So what's the difference? In these contexts, you might think that the concepts of energy shell and orbital are interchangeable. This is just to mean the same definition: that a*The electron goes to a higher energy state.*, thus creating a**excited state**.

Look at the diagram to clarify how an electron rises in energy. This distinction is what causes the difference between the ground state and the excited state of atoms.

Figure 2 -An atom in the ground state being excited by a photon. This causes the electron to move to a higher energy shell.

usually the**excited state**of atoms is represented by an asterisk next to it. Below you will find an example:

**A**(Fundamental State)

**A***(excited state)

**A**+ energy =**A***

**A* = A**+ energy

Therefore, you can assume that molecules or atoms are only in their excited state if there is an asterisk next to them. This will help you to identify the**ground states**of atoms in**equations**.

## Ground state electronic configuration vs. excited state

Have a look at both**electronic configurations**below. In this example, the model element is carbon.

Fig. 3 - Diagram of electronic configuration of the ground state and excited state of carbon

Do you notice any difference between them? One of them can be said to clearly follow the three rules we set out above. As a reminder, these are the**construction principle, Pauli exclusion principle,**y**dog rule**.

The diagram above representing the ground state represents the**electrons**organizing according to these three fundamental principles. So how does it differ in the excited state? In particular, one can see how an electron from the**orbital 2s**moves to the**orbital 2p**. As you can see, there is a 'hole' in the 2s orbital, which means that electrons do not occupy the lowest energy states. We would call this an excited state because one of the electrons has enough energy to move up one energy level, in this case to the 2p orbital.

Just like you won**energy**go up towards one**excited state**, the electron can re-emit the energy and return to the energy level it occupied before:**the ground state**.

Fig. 4 - Change from an excited state to the ground state of an atom

As a reminder, below you will see how the electronic arrangement is represented in box and arrow diagrams as energy levels increase. You can use this to find out the arrangement of subatomic particles and, more importantly, whether the element in question is in its ground state.

Note that the diagram below only shows the electronic arrangement up to the 4p orbital, however there are items that go much further than that, but you don't need to worry about that.

Fig. 5 - Aufbau principle for electron configuration

## Examples of ground state

Here you will find many examples of**ground state electron configuration.**Take a look at the figure below, which shows the electronic configuration of atoms from Boron to Oxygen.

Figure 6 -Electronic configuration representing the ground state of elements B, C, N, O

What can you see in the diagram above? You can tell how the elements given in the example increase in atomic number by 1, so their number of electrons will increase by 1.

Thinking about the gradual increase in electrons, look at what happens to the electronic configuration of elements and, more importantly, how it changes from atom to atom. That way, you'll observe trends and see how Hund's rule plays a role in electron configuration. Ultimately, all this just goes to show that the ground state of atoms is a pattern-like process and does not shift from atom to atom. Using these examples, you can predict any electron configuration of the atoms in question and determine whether they are in the ground state or excited state.

## Ground state: key points

- The ground state of an atom refers to a
**without enthusiasm**state. - Excitation occurs when an electron moves up through energy states.
- You can determine the state of an atom with its electron configuration.
- The electronic state of atoms can be determined by:
- principle of construction
- Pauli exclusion principle
- dog rule

- The electron configuration exhibits periodicity as seen in examples of atomic ground states.

## FAQs

### What is the fundamental counting formula? ›

The fundamental counting principle states that **if there are p ways to do one thing, and q ways to do another thing, then there are p×q ways to do both things**.

**What is an example of fundamental principle of counting in real life? ›**

Fundamental Principle of Counting

Example: **A restaurant has 5 appetizers, 8 beverages, 9 entrees, and 6 desserts on the menu**. If you have a beverage and a dessert, there are 8*6=48 different meals consisting of a beverage and dessert.

**What is the fundamental principle of counting multiplication rule examples? ›**

This principle states that the total number of outcomes of two or more independent events is the product of the number of outcomes of each individual event. For example, **a child choosing among six flavors of icecreams with 3 varieties of cones will have 6 x 3 = 18 different choices of icecreams**.

**What is the fundamental counting principle 5th grade? ›**

The teacher then guides the class to understand and apply the fundamental counting principle, which states that **the total number of outcomes is equal to the number of possibilities in a set of choices multiplied by the number of possibilities in each other set of choices**.

**What are fundamental principles examples? ›**

**Equality, Rule of Law, Limited Government, and Representative Government** are examples of fundamental principles and values in American political and civic life.

**What does fundamental mean in math? ›**

Fundamental mathematics is **a foundation for later learning**. It is primary because it contains advanced mathematical topics in rudimentary form, and it is elementary because it is at the beginning of students' learning.

**What are some examples of math in everyday life? ›**

**Here are some daily tasks for which math is important:**

- Managing money $$$
- Balancing the checkbook.
- Shopping for the best price.
- Preparing food.
- Figuring out distance, time and cost for travel.
- Understanding loans for cars, trucks, homes, schooling or other purposes.
- Understanding sports (being a player and team statistics)

**How do I use the fundamental counting principle to find the total number of outcomes? ›**

The Fundamental Counting Principle states that if you wish to find the number of outcomes for a given situation, simply **multiply the number of outcomes for each individual event**.

**What is the multiplication rule example? ›**

Examples of the General Multiplication Rule

**Initially, the deck has 13 hearts out of its 52 cards (13/52 = 0.25).** If you draw a heart (event H1), that changes the probability of drawing another heart. The dependent probability of drawing that second heart (event H2) is now 12/51 = 0.235.

**What is an example of a rule in math? ›**

An algebraic rule is a mathematical expression that relates two variables and is written in the form of an equation. There are many constant algebraic rules, such as **area = length x width**.

### What is fundamental principles? ›

Definitions of fundamental principle. **principles from which other truths can be derived**. synonyms: basic principle, basics, bedrock, fundamentals. types: ABC, ABC's, ABCs, alphabet, first principle, first rudiment, rudiment. the elementary stages of any subject (usually plural)

**What is the formula of probability? ›**

Probability determines the likelihood of an event occurring: **P(A) = f / N**. Odds and probability are related but odds depend on the probability. You first need probability before determining the odds of an event occurring.

**What are the 4 counting principles? ›**

This video uses manipulatives to review the five counting principles including **stable order, correspondence, cardinality, abstraction, and order irrelevance**.

**What are 7 fundamental principles? ›**

**Humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity and universality**: these seven Fundamental Principles sum up the Movement's ethics and are at the core of its approach to helping people in need during armed conflict, natural disasters and other emergencies.

**What are the 5 fundamental principles? ›**

**The revised Code establishes a conceptual framework for all professional accountants to ensure compliance with the five fundamental principles of ethics:**

- Integrity.
- Objectivity.
- Professional Competence and Due Care.
- Confidentiality.
- Professional Behavior.

**What are examples of the 7 principles? ›**

They are **popular sovereignty, limited government, separation of powers, federalism, checks and balances, republicanism, and individual rights**.

**What is the simple meaning of fundamental? ›**

fun·da·men·tal ˌfən-də-ˈment-ᵊl. : **being or forming a foundation** : basic, essential. a discovery fundamental to modern science. our fundamental rights. : of or relating to essential structure or function : radical.

**What is fundamental of numbers? ›**

In mathematics, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, also called the unique factorization theorem and prime factorization theorem, states that **every integer greater than 1 can be represented uniquely as a product of prime numbers, up to the order of the factors**.

**What is meaning of fundamental of numbers? ›**

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic states that **every integer greater than 1 is either a prime number or can be expressed in the form of primes**. In other words, all the natural numbers can be expressed in the form of the product of its prime factors.

**Why is the fundamental counting principle important? ›**

Why is the fundamental counting principle important? The fundamental counting principle can be used for problems having large sample spaces, problems having more than two choices and can also be applied in probability.

### What is the fundamental principle of counting word problems? ›

The Fundamental Counting Principle states that **if one event has m possible outcomes and a 2nd event has n possible outcomes, then there are m ⋅ n total possible outcomes for the two events together**.

**What is the difference between permutation and fundamental counting principle? ›**

The difference between the two is **whether or not order is important**. If you have a problem where you can repeat objects, then you must use the Fundamental Counting Principle, you can't use Permutations or Combinations.

**Why are equations important in everyday life? ›**

Without the precise understanding provided by the equations, the world would not have silicon chips, compact disk players, MRI medical examinations, or many of the other things we now take for granted. But none of those applications required that those equations be solved in the strict mathematical sense.

**How many 9s are there in 90? ›**

Nine 10s made 90. The missing number is nine.

**What are the 10 uses of mathematics in our daily life? ›**

**10 Ways We Use Math Everyday**

- Chatting on the cell phone. Chatting on the cell phone is the way of communicating for most people nowadays. ...
- In the kitchen. Baking and cooking requires some mathematical skill as well. ...
- Gardening. ...
- Arts. ...
- Keeping a diary. ...
- Planning an outing. ...
- Banking. ...
- Planning dinner parties.

**What are the 3 main fundamental principle of counting? ›**

While there are five basic counting principles: **addition, multiplication, subtraction, cardinality (principle of inclusion-exclusion), and division**.

**What is the formula for total number of outcomes? ›**

To find the total number of outcomes for two or more events, **multiply the number of outcomes for each event together**. This is called the product rule for counting because it involves multiplying to find a product.

**Which is the fundamental counting unit in chemistry? ›**

Of special interest to Chemistry is **the mole** , the base unit for expressing the quantity of matter. Although the number is not explicitly mentioned in the official definition, chemists define the mole as Avogadro's number (approximately 6.02x10^{23}) of anything.

**What is the fundamental principle of counting problem? ›**

What is the fundamental principle of counting? **If an event can occur in m different ways, and another event can occur in n different ways, then the total number of occurrences of the events is m × n**.

**How do you calculate fundamental operations? ›**

Generally, the order in which we perform operations sequentially from left to right is: **division, multiplication, addition, subtraction**. This order is expressed in short as 'DMAS' where 'D' stands for division, 'M' stands for multiplication, 'A' stands for addition and, 'S' for subtraction.

### What is fundamental unit example? ›

In the International System of Units, the fundamental units are: **Kilograms - Mass**. **Meters - Distance**. **Counting - Seconds**.

**What are 3 fundamental units? ›**

**The three fundamental units are:**

- Mass: Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in a body. The fundamental unit of mass is Kilogram .
- Time: Time is a measurable period. The basic fundamental unit of time is second .
- Length: The length of an object is the distance between the two ends of an object.

**What are the 3 fundamental unit of all matter? ›**

Atoms are the building blocks of matter because they cannot be "broken down" further by chemical means (although we can split them). Inside an atom consists of three different particles: **protons, neutrons, and electrons**.

**What is the principle of fundamental? ›**

**Humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity and universality**: these seven Fundamental Principles sum up the Movement's ethics and are at the core of its approach to helping people in need during armed conflict, natural disasters and other emergencies.

**What are the fundamental principles of mathematics? ›**

**Fundamental principles(?) in mathematics**

- Identity/Equality. Closely related to being isomorphic. ...
- Contradiction. Showing that something cannot be true as it leads to a contradiction or inconsistency. ...
- Induction. ...
- Recursion. ...
- Fixpoint. ...
- Symmetry. ...
- Invariants. ...
- Limits.

**What is the formula of nPr? ›**

The formula of permutation is: **nPr=n!** **(n−r)!**

**What are the example of 4 fundamental operations? ›**

**Addition (Finding the Sum; '+')** **Subtraction (Finding the difference; '-')** **Multiplication (Finding the product; '×' )** **Division (Finding the quotient; '÷')**

**Which formula is the fundamental theorem of algebra formula? ›**

The roots can have a multiplicity greater than zero. For example, x^{2} − 2x + 1 = 0 can be expressed as **(x − 1)(x − 1) = 0**; that is, the root x = 1 occurs with a multiplicity of 2. The theorem can also be stated as every polynomial equation of degree n where n ≥ 1 with complex number coefficients has at least one root.

**What are the four fundamentals of calculation and basic measure? ›**

--**addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division**--have application even in the most advanced mathematical theories.